Naked Quasars !
Point Spread Function
Deep photograph of an unresolvable galactic star reveals only the point spread function
of the imaging system. The artefacts aren't associated with the original object but are internal
imperfections of the optical system and typically manifests themselves as streaks and rings.
In most cases the Hubble Space Telescope quasar survey revealed only 'naked quasars' without
associated nebulosity, only
similar to the one on the left were detected.
COSMOLOGICAL QUASAR THEORY FAILS ANOTHER TEST
In a recent survey with the Hubble Space Telescope
Bahcall et al. (1994)
failed to find the so-called 'host galaxy' surrounding many
The standard cosmological theory of quasars predicted that the nebulosity
should have easily been detected with the resolution and dynamic range of
the Hubble Space Telescope. This is a completely unexpected discovery
and cosmologists are dumbfounded :
Out of the 15 quasars in the HST survey, 11 had no detectable nebulosity, they
appear to be 'naked'. To make matters worse, in the four exceptional
cases in which nebulosity was found, it was much fainter than expected,
almost at the noise threshold.
These results were remarkable within the context of the cosmological theory,
which depends on a host galaxy to 'feed' a ravenous black hole with the
required 'food' to maintain its prodigious energy output. This poses great
difficulties for cosmologists still clinging to the black hole theory.
The problem is especially perplexing considering the fact that they
pre-selected only low-redshift quasars for their survey which they hoped
would translate to nearer objects thus more easily visible 'host galaxies'.
The model of a black-hole as the quasars central engine has been the
centerpiece of the cosmological quasars theory. Black holes were needed as a
theoretical 'patch' to justify many of the
stemming from the assumption that quasars are the most
in the universe. Without black holes to provide the power
the 'patch' once again has to be 'patched' !
McLeod and Rieke (1995)
take the denial approach and attempt to re-analyse the data with clever image
processing tricks in what seems like a desperate attempt to salvage the situation.
Fukugita and Turner (1996)
make a feeble attempt to patch the model by proposing a universe filled with
unseen 'naked' supermassive black holes and quasars occur by encounters with
material in the intergalactic medium. They seem to be grasping at straws.
Putting aside these last-minute attempts, it is safe to say that
without the host 'galaxy' to provide the supposed black-holes
with the required fuel, the cosmological quasar theory 'collapses'
(no pun intended).
NAKED QUASAR ENIGMA SOLVED
theory predicted these results. Quasars are merely hot stars
similar to hydrogen poor
and central stars of planetary nebula. It was expected that HST would not be
able to resolve some of them, just as it is not able to resolve the disk
of most other stars except for
(Gilliland and Dupree, 1996)
Further, since the redshift is a number without physical significance, we predict
that 'Naked' quasars will be found even for very low redshift.
Although authors in the astronomical literature have claimed that there
are no other theories which would have predicted this outcome, they are
wrong: The plasma laser star theory by
not only explains but predicts the missing nebulosity.
If quasars are stars within the galaxy, their bright emission lines are
due to laser action within a rapidly expanding and cooling stellar
atmosphere. This tremendous mass loss leaves behind 'ashes' or
'exhaust' which may or may not produce visible
Except for the very large nearby stars such as
most stars within our galaxy simply cannot be resolved at present nor
by any instrument in the foreseeable future. And neither could laser stars
with very little nebulosity.
Quasars which Hubble found were 'naked' in the optical were
found to be embedded within extensive infrared nebulosity by previous ground
Under the assumption of the cosmological quasar theory, the nebulosity
originates from the stars in the host galaxy; hence even if their
spectra was redenned, the nebulosity should show up in the visible spectrum
and be detectable by the Hubble. This was not the case.
There are three simple solutions to this discrepancy and both involve
dropping the quasar redshift assumption and identifying the nebulosity
with circumstellar dust and gas around a laser star :
The astronomical community has shielded itself from the consequences of the
laser star theory and its predictions
by applying the selection effect.
Research on objects in which astronomers claim have a redshift has remained
in a strange limbo, despite the fact that most quasar properties aren't correlated
to the redshift. The redshift has shackled the astronomical community.
In addition the recent discovery of lasers in
MWC 349 and in
NGC 7027 are obvious clues
that the cosmological redshift theory of quasars must be discarded.
- The best explanation for the bright infrared nebulosity is the
infrared excess produced by gas and dust in a
The emissions from dust are often invisible in the optical
portion of the spectrum as in
Young Stellar Objects.
This infrared excess confirms one of the predictions of the
laser star theory.
- Or the optical variability in the circumstellar shell may be the
results of episodic plasma outbursts from the laser star. This theory is
supported by observational evidence that quasar are variable stars,
the laser emission lines are also variable hinting to rapidly changing
plasma parameters due to sporadic ejections.
- A third possibility: The optical nebulosity could have been visible
at the time the infrared observations were made, however the circumstellar dust
cloud may have been blown further away from the star and become optically
invisible by the time the Hubble made its observations. This mechanism is
supported by evidence in
Fisher et al. (1996)
in which Hubble found separate nebulosities with higher than normal density near most
of the quasars. Astronomers identify these nebulosities as separate galaxies.
These clumps aren't galaxies but 'ashes' from previous plasma ejections from the
laser star. These associated yet separate nebulous clumps near most of the quasars
confirm yet another of the predictions made by the laser star theory.
(The image of the
a the top of this page is extracted from a picture of the
which is courtesy of the
Press release: January 11, 1995; HST discovers naked quasars
(and a photo)
Bahcall,J.N., Kirhakos,S., Schneider,D.P.: 1994, ApJ., 435, L11.
HST Naked QSO images (see also
LALN preprint or
ADS abstract or
Bahcall,J.N., Kirhakos,S., Schneider,D.P.: 1995, ApJ., 450, 486.
HST Images of 8 Quasars
Laor,A., Bahcall,J.N., Jannuzi,B.T., Schneider,D.P., Green,R.F.: 1995, ApJS., 99, 1.
UV Emission of 13 Quasars
Fisher,K.B., Bahcall,J.N., Kirhakos,S., Schneider,D.P.: 1996, ApJ.
Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars.
Bahcall,J.N., Kirhakos,S., Schneider,D.P.:
HST images of 2 QSO. (see also
Bahcall,J.N., Kirhakos,S., Schneider,D.P.: 1995, ApJ., 447, 1.
HST Imaging of PKS 2349-014. (see also
Bahcall,J.N., Kirhakos,S., Schneider,D.P.: 1994, ApJ.Lett., 435, L11.
Fukugita,M., Turner,E.L.: 1996, ApJ., 460, L81.
Quasars from Galaxy Collisions with 'Naked' Black Holes. (see also Princeton
(seems like they are 'grasping at straws')
McLeod,K.K., Rieke,G.H.: 1995, ApJ., 454, L77.
(Desperate attempt to salvage HST naked quasar data with clever image processing tricks)
Discover Magazine May 1995 (Naked Quasars)
Science On-Line: Kaiser,J.: 1995, Science, 270(5240), 1303. 'Naked Quasars Get Dressed'
Research: QSO host galaxies
HST GTO/FOS Imaging and spectrophotometry of Seyfert Nuclei (Holland,F.)
AAS 186th Meeting Program (has many quasar articles)
Active Galaxies and Quasars (1995 Annual report of Penn State)
Gilliland,R.L., Dupree,A.K.: 1996, ApJ, 463, L29.
HST Image of the
Surface of Betelgeuse
QUASARS, LENSES & ACTIVE GALAXIES
HST GTO Spinrad,H.: High resolution morphologies and colors in distant radio galaxies
Discovery Sheds More Light on Quasars
Active galaxies (queens Univ.)
Surveys for High Redshift Quasars (Schmidt,M, Gunn,J.)
Space Adventure - Quasars: The Oldest Galaxies? (mostly inaccurate description of QSO)
Knowledge Adventure - Reference - Space Adventure (interested but too 'flashy' !)
Daniel Mortlock, 'Wide Separation Double Quasar', Honors project, 1994.
Astronomy course: 640-177 Stars and Galaxies: Quasars
- A society without its radicals is a dead society; just as a church
without its saints is a blighted. They - the nonconformists of every age -
do not need us; we need them to remind us of uncomfortable truths.
Editorial, 'Commonwealth', July 1, 1955.
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