Movie of 3C345 jets
Animation of a series of radio images of 3C 345 at 10.7 GHz over the span of 5 years, if the object was really extragalactic at 1700 MegaParsecs as most cosmologists claim, its jets would be exceeding 7 times the speed of light ! (courtesy John Biretta/Space Telecope Science Institute)

Varshni (1974) has shown that quasar redshift is merely an empty number without physical significance, quasars are stars within the galaxy. However, despite the overwhelming amount of contradictory data, the astronomical community still persists in assuming that the redshift is a valid distance indicator from which they incorrectly deduce that quasars are extra-galactic. The gross overestimation of quasar distance has led to spurious paradoxical properties such as superluminal motion, one of four paradoxes of Kellermann (1972), which we now discuss:

Kellermann's Paradoxes



The density of radio sources depends on red shift in just such a way to cancel the geometrical effects and the effect of the red shift. The Effect of the red shift on the observed fluxes for most of the observed sources is negligibly small.
The intrinsic spectral-index distribution depends on red shift in just such a way to cancel the effect of the red shift. The effect of the red shift on the spectra for most of the observed sources is negligibly small.
The linear dimensions of radio sources depend on red shift in just such a way to cancel the geometrical effects of the red shift. The geometric effect of the red shift on apparent size is negligibly small.
The intrinsic intensity of the two components of 3C 279 differ by just the right amount to cancel the effect of the Doppler shifts. The distance of 3C 279 is much closer than indicated by the red shift and the motion is actually non-relativistic.

The paragraphs offset from the margin and bulleted are direct quotes from Kellermann (1972), the remaining text is the reviewers comments:

In the context of the plasma laser star theory we have shown that quasar red shift is a number without physical significance. Kellermann (1972) a highly respected radio astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has corroborated these findings based on observations in the radio portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. He stated these paradoxes succinctly in Table I.

The first and second paradoxes were discussed in Varshni (1979); the redshift obtained from optical quasar spectra has absolutely no correlation with apparent magnitude. The third paradox was discussed in Varshni (1976a); the largest angular size-redshift diagram for quasars is shown to be a consequence of the distribution of their redshifts and has no intrinsic physical significance. The fourth paradox was discussed in Varshni (1982).

We must be very careful when comparing the absolute luminosity of the various radio sources. The distance to objects estimated using the redshift criterion is irrelevant. The redshift has often been used to identify objects as galaxies when no other valid criterion exited, since redshift is meaningless, this classification scheme is obsolete; many galactic objects are mistaken for galaxies in this way, such as Cygnus-A. One mistake in distance estimation such as this or in the case of the very first quasars (Schmidt, 1965) creates paradoxical properties, that multiply in number as observational techniques improve over the years.

Therefore radio data cannot be used as evidence against the plasma laser star theory.

The quasar redshift versus apparent magnitude plot is a scatter diagram; no physically meaningful inferences could be made from this relationship, except of course that the redshift is a just number without significance.

The optically obtained redshift is the only distance indicator for most quasars, but we have shown it to be meaningless.

This is exactly what we would expect from a number without any physical significance.

The redshift of galaxies is also an empty number without physical significance, Hubble himself published his doubts on this subject based on his empirical observation not on theoretical mumbo jumbo.

Such as the non-thermal radiation from shocks produced by rapid plasma ejections from plasma laser star atmospheres colliding with cooler slower moving plasma, atoms or dust condensed from previous ejections.

On this point, there can be no doubt.

It is refreshing to see such a candid discussion on the assumptions behind standard cosmology unlike more recent papers that implicitly assume that quasars are extragalactic.

Red shift has no physical meaning, we don't expect any correlation with radio properties.

Plot of Linear Size versus Luminosity

Linear Size versus Luminosity

For 1.4 Ghz radio sources brighter that 2 jansky, the distribution of linear size versus luminosity is a scatter diagram (Condon, 1991), there is no correlation between these properties implying that the distance determination method is faulty.
Plot of redshift versus spectral index

Redshift versus Spectral Index

The distribution of redshift versus spectral index at 1.4 GHz is also a scatter diagram (Condon, 1991), a strong indication that the redshift is a number without physical significance.

Hubble : the (velocity-distance) relation departs from linearity by just about the added correction for recession ... the necessary adjustments and compensations suggest that the model may be a forced interpretation of data , and, ... we may evidently choose between a curious small-scale universe and new principles of physics'
-Edwin P Hubble, 1936a

The new principles of physics is not really new, it is called the quantum mechanics of stimulated emission postulated by Einstein (1917). Amplified spontaneous emission from a plasma with an inverted population is the mechanism for the unusual strength of quasar lines.

How true ! This test has already been made by Luyten (1969) in his observations using the smaller yet no less venerable instrument on Palomar mountain: The Oschin Schmidt. In Luyten's survey of 951 faint blue stars, no less than 40 quasars had been serendipidously included in the proper motion studies. Many of these quasars show significant galactic proper motion, indicating that they are hot stars within our own galaxy. Not coincidentally, one of the brightest quasars in the sky, TON 202, has one of the largest proper motion, about equal to that of NGC 7293, the central star of the Helix Nebula.

(N.B.: The Oschin Schmidt was used to carry out the original National Geographic-Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS), whose plates are still widely used by the astronomical community)


  1. Biretta also discovered that M 87 is also travelling at 6 times the speed of light
  2. Hubble,E.: 1936a, Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci. 22, 621.
  3. Condon,J.J.: 1991, in Galactic and Extragalactic Radio Astronomy, 2nd ed. p.641, eds. Kellermann, K.I, Vershuur,G.L., Springer Verlag.
  4. Kellermann, K.I: 1972, Astron.J. 77, 531. 'Radio Galaxies, Quasars, and Cosmology'
  5. Kellermann,K.I., Owen,F.N.: 1988 in Galactic and Extragalactic Radio Astronomy, Verschuur,G.L., Kellermann,K.I. (eds) p.563 (Springer, New York)
  6. Schmidt,A.: 1968, Astrophys.J. 151, 393.
  7. Pauliny-Toth,I.I.K., Kellermann,K.I.: 1966, Astrophys.J. 146, 634.
  8. Web link to POSS data and Minnesota Univ. Plate Scanning Project at NSSDC.

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