Radio Jets of SS433
Movie of continuous jets ejected from SS433 along twin-corkscrew patterns, the axis precesses like a spinning top and the jets respond like water ejected from a spinning lawn sprinkler. The VLA radio images at 4.9 and 15 Ghz were taken over the span of several months in 1980-81. (see also the MERLIN Movie)

Radio Jets of Cyg X-3 VLBI image of high velocity jets expanding away from X-ray binary Cyg X-3, the distance is uncertain because it is based on HI absorption, which makes assumptions about hydrogen density distributions along the intervening spiral arms. (Johnston, 1987)
Radio Jets of CH Cyg 15 Ghz VLA image of symbiotic star CH Cyg showing jets moving at a rate of 1.1 arcsec per year (Taylor, 1986)

Many radio emitting OB stars and Wolf-Rayets don't fit the standard theory of simple free-free emission from ionized winds. Non-thermal radiation from synchrotron mechanisms or shocks in the outer parts of the winds may be the source of the anomalous radio emissions. The optical spectra of SS 433 has very strong and broad emission lines very similar to the typical quasar spectra (PHL 5200). There is no clear dividing line between the symbiotic stars, slow novae and stellar winds. If the quasar redshift assumption is dropped, the remarkable continuum of properties common to all of these jet emitting stars is easily understood : Quasars are stars within our galaxy !

Image of 3C 273 Radio+Optical Jet
Radio and optical image of the jet from quasar 3C 273. Helicoidal ejections similar to SS 433 are visible. The jet also resembles HH34 (Herbig-Haro object). (Bahcall et al., 1995)

Laser action (Varshni, 1979) is the extremely obvious solution to one of the most intriguing astrophysical problems of the century has been ignored by overly competitive astronomers too entrenched in their cosmological quasar interpretation to take notice of the similarity between quasars and jet emitting emission line stars. Fang (1981) has also proposed laser action in a rapidly cooled recombining plasma as the source of the strong emission lines in the spectrum of SS 433.


  1. Jets From SS433 (Astronomy Picture of the day, Mar 6, 1996)
  2. SS433 Paper by Fred at the Young European Radio Astronomers' Conference (YERAC) - Has color animation of SS433 ejection by MERLIN radio telescope. see also X-Ray Binaries at Jodrell Bank
  3. Margon,B. et al.: 1979, ApJ., 230, L41. (Optical spectra of SS433)
  4. Physical Conditions at the Origin of the SS433 Jets
  5. [ NEW ]Astrophysical jet simulation
  6. [ NEW ]Computational Techniques in Astrophysical Gas Dynamics
  7. Short Timescale Variability of the Hard X-ray Flux from Cygnus X-1
  8. BATSE Earth Occultation Observations of Cygnus X-1 in 1993
  9. Miller et al.: 1995, ApJ., 448, L77. (Optical spectra of quasar PHL5200)
  10. Margon,B.: 1984, Ann.Rev.Astron.Astrophys., 22, 507. (time variation of SS433 spectra)
  11. Davidson,K., McCray,R.: 1980, ApJ., 241, 1082. SS 433 as a Prototype of Astrophysical Jets
  12. Begelman, et al. : 1980, ApJ., 238, 722. Beam Models for SS 433
  13. Hjellming,R.M.: 1991, in Galactic and Extragalactic Radio Astronomy, 2nd ed. p.381, eds. Kellermann, K.I, Vershuur,G.L., Springer Verlag.
  14. Johnston,K.J.: 1987, Private communication.
  15. Taylor et al. : 1986, Nature 319, 38.
  16. Fang,L.: 1981, Scientia Sinica, 24, 207. Rapidly cooled plasma recombination laser in objects with accretion disks like SS 433
  17. Bahcall,J.N., Kirhakos,S., Schneider,D.P., Davis,R.J., Muxlow,T.W.B., Garrington,S.T., Conway,R.G., Unwin,S.C.: 1995, ApJ., 452, L91. Combined Radio and Optical images of 3C 273 jet (HST/MERLIN) (see also LALN preprint)
  18. Tomov,T., Kolev,D., Munari,U., Antov,A.: 1996, MNRAS, 278, 542. Time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy of CH Cygni : evidence for a magnetic propeller state in 1994.
  19. Skopal,A.: 1995, IAU Inform.Bull.Var.Stars, 4157, 1. Photometric observations of eclipses in the symbiotic triple system CH Cygni.
  20. Leahy,D.A., Volk,K.: 1995, ApJ., 440, 847. ROSAT PSPC Observations of the Symbiotic CH Cygni
  21. Skopal,A., Bode,M.F., Bryce,M., Meaburn,J., Tamura,S.: 1995, Astrophys. Space Sci., 224, 559. Circumstellar matter in the symbiotic binary CH Cyg during its current outburst.
  22. Schalinski et al.: 1995, ApJ., 447, 752. VLBI Observations of Cygnus X-3 during the 1985 October Radio Outburst
  23. Terasawa,N., Nakamura,H.: 1995, AA., 294, 443. Ionization structure of Cygnus X-3: Iron anomaly in Wolf-Rayet stars?

Galileo : I think that in the discussion of natural problems we ought to begin not with the Scriptures, but with experiments, and demonstrations.
-Galileo Galilei
(Portrait IMSS - Firenze)

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