Varshni,Y.P: 1988, Bull.Amer.Astron.Soc., 20, 1003.

Over the course of years, we have examined, scrutinized and analyzed the available data on the redshifts of many galaxies, especially the spectral data. We find that there is no need of assuming any redshifts in galaxies also, as was the case for quasars (Varshni 1973, 1974a, 1974b, 1975, 1979, 1988) and radio galaxies (Varshni, 1979). Small redshifts ( z < 0.003 ), like those in galactic stars, are, of course, possible. There are, of course genuine external galaxies (e.g., Andromeda, M33, etc .) but it appears that many of the objects labelled as galaxies are in reality nebulosities in our own galaxy. As an example we consider the case of 1305+2952 G8. A strong emission line at 7230 has been reported in this object and this line has been interpreted as [O II] 3727 at a 'redshift' of 0.943. Actually the line is readily identified to be C II 7231, 7236 (mult.3) which is undergoing laser action. Thus the object in question is a galactic object. Our conclusion of 'no redshifts' readily explains the following: (a) The large scatter of points for 'galaxies' on the (m, z) diagram. (Lang et al.: 1975, Ap.J., 202, 583) (b) Discordant 'redshifts' and other related things (Arp, 1987, Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies). It also eliminates the need of assuming a hypothetical 'missing mass'. There is a great need of better spectral data for many galaxies.

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